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301不锈钢螺栓断裂原因分析
英文标题:Cause analysis of fracture for 301 stainless steel bolt
作者:闫志波 赵海涛 陈红卫 
单位:石家庄职业技术学院 河钢集团钢研总院 
关键词:301不锈钢 冷镦 断裂 金相组织 氢脆 
分类号:TG142.1
出版年,卷(期):页码:2020,45(10):7-12
摘要:

 为找出301不锈钢螺栓断裂的原因,使用HORIBA GD Profiler 2射频辉光放电光谱仪对螺栓的化学成分进行分析,采用Zeiss ULTRA 55场发射扫描电子显微镜和AXioImager.M 2m光学显微镜对螺栓的断口形貌和金相组织进行观察,并利用EDS对螺栓中的典型夹杂物成分进行分析,并将螺栓头部样品在PANalytical Empyrean X射线衍射仪上进行X射线衍射试验,分析了样品的相组成。试验发现:螺栓的成分符合要求;螺栓断面边缘部位呈沿晶断裂,中心粗糙部位为韧性断裂;螺栓变形区发生了马氏体相变,存在变形奥氏体+马氏体组织;该不锈钢螺栓冷变形前未发生敏化现象。综合分析试验结果可知,冷变形导致的马氏体组织和海水中应力腐蚀导致的氢脆是301不锈钢螺栓断裂的两个主要原因。后续生产中需改进工艺,避免钢中出现马氏体组织。

 In order to find out the cause reason of 301 stainless steel bolt, the chemical compositions of bolt were analyzed by HORIBA GD Profiler 2 RF glow discharge spectrometer, and the fracture morphology and metallographic structure of bolt were observed by Zeiss ULTRA 55 field emission scanning electron microscope and AXioImager.M 2m optical microscope. Then, the typical inclusion composition in the bolt was analyzed by EDS, and the X-ray diffraction tests on the bolt head samples were conducted to analyze the phase composition of samples by PANalytical Empyrean X-ray diffractometer. The results show that the composition of bolt meets the requirements, and the edge of bolt section is intergranular fracture and the central rough part is ductile fracture. In addition, the martensitic transformation occurs in the  deformation zone of bolt, the deformed austenite and martensite structure exist, and there is no sensitization phenomenon in the stainless steel bolt before cold deformation. Finally, comprehensive analysis of test results shows that 

the martensite structure caused by cold deformation and the hydrogen embrittlement caused by stress corrosion in seawater are the two main reasons for the fracture of 301 stainless steel bolt. Thus, it is necessary to improve the process in the subsequent production to avoid martensite structure in the steels.
基金项目:
作者简介:
闫志波(1965-),男,硕士,副教授 E-mail:sjzpt2010@163.com
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